Welcome to the National Writers Union

The National Writers Union UAW Local 1981 is the only labor union that represents freelance writers.

Now, more than ever, with the consolidation of power into the hands of ever-larger corporate entities and with the advent of technologies that facilitate the exploitation of a writer’s work, writers need an organization with the clout and know-how to protect our interests. One that will forge new rules for a new era.

Combining the strength of more than 1,200 members in our 13 chapters with the support of the United Automobile Workers, the NWU works to advance the economic and working conditions of all writers.  Our members also directly benefit from the many valuable services the Union offers—including grievance assistance, contract advice, and much more—while actively contributing to a growing movement of professional freelancers who have banded together to assert their collective power.

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Special Announcements

05/25/2015 - 9:10am

Every year, the National Writers Union’s New York Chapter features four emerging poets who are personally selected by close associates of Louis Reyes Rivera. These four artists are given the extraordinary opportunity to read their original works to the accompaniment of professional jazz musicians in a prominent venue. This year on May 16, a standing-room-only audience welcomed Cesilie Anandi, Cypress Preston Jackson, Nkosi Nkululeko, and Meriam Rodriguez to the stage at the historic Nuyorican Poets Café. UpSurge! JazzPoetry Ensemble’s expert accompaniment made every word from these very talented artists even more memorable. African Voices’ Carolyn Butts and esteemed poet Layding Kaliba also received the 2015 Louis Reyes Rivera Excellence Award for Educator Artists. Nearly 100 people attended including members of Louis’s family. This year would have marked his 70th birthday.

In her note soon after the event, Meriam Rodriguez wrote “I felt so inspired after performing with the Upsurge! JazzPoetry Ensemble and for the family, peers, and colleagues of Louis Reyes Rivera that I immediately went home and started working on my next novel. I am a proud conduit for those that came before us and will continue to write in their honor. Thank you National Writers Union for all that you do!”

A former chair of NWU’s New York Chapter, Louis Reyes Rivera is considered by many as a necessary bridge between the African and Latino American communities. He received over 20 awards as well as assisted in the publication of well over 200 books, including John Oliver Killens’ Great Black Russian (Wayne State University, 1989), Adal Maldonado’s Portraits of the Puerto Rican Experience (IPRUS, 1984), and Bum Rush the Page: A Def Poetry Jam (Crown Publishers, 2001). Just before his passing in 2012, Louis completed an epic poem, Jazz in Jail (unpublished) and translated Clemente Soto Velez’s Broomstick Station. The 2015 event was funded in part by Poets & Writers, Inc., with public funds from the New York State Council on the Arts with the support of Governor Andrew Cuomo and the New York State Legislature. It occurs annually on the Saturday closest to Louis’s birthday on May 19.

Photo: Cypress Preston Jackson reading to the accompaniment of UpSurge! JazzPoetry Ensemble. Credit: Krishna Yalla

05/25/2015 - 9:06am

Finding Security in Unsafe Passages” was a half-day event for journalists that the National Writers Union co-sponsored at the United Nations in New York on May 7 to mark World Press Freedom Day and raise awareness of the International Federation of Journalist’s End Impunity campaign. According to IFJ, more than 700 journalists have been killed for bringing news and information to the public over the past decade.

However, only one in ten cases committed against media workers during that same time led to a conviction. Jon Williams from ABC News served as moderator. Prior to his current role as managing editor for international news, Williams led crisis management teams at the BBC following the murder of one colleague by terrorists and the five-month kidnap of another, which ultimately ended with his safe return. Nearly 100 participants learned about the wide range of risks that journalists face every day. Susan Davis, NWU’s National Contract Advisor, discussed copyright issues, Frank Smyth from Global Journalist Security lead a safety demonstration, and NYU’s Charles Seife showed how confidential sources can be revealed by looking at the codes embedded in emails.

The Belgian and French Ambassadors to the UN discussed their governments’ measures to protect press freedom. Besides the IFJ and NWU, this event was organized by the Communications Coordination Committee for the United Nations and the Metro New York Labor Communications CouncilPEN America Center included it as part of their World Voices Festival.  The full session was webcast and archived on the UN’s website. President Larry Goldbetter and NWU NY Co-Chair Alexandria Faiz represent the IFJ at the UN as NGO representatives.

Photo: Susan Davis speaking at the UN. Credit: Jose Pinto Stephen

Link to Video:


05/07/2015 - 10:41pm

Our main phone number (212) 254-0279 to the NWU headquarters office is down temporarily due to a a manhole explosion that knocked out Time Warner in midtown Manhattan, in New York City where we are based. We hope the phone lines are operating by Friday, May 7 or Monday, May 10.

While you are on hold, please view this video, produced by the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists, dedicated to all the journalists who have faced threats or torture while conducting their professional duties:




04/06/2015 - 4:57pm


By Anita Diggs

Before you put pen to paper, you have some preliminary work to do. Make a list of at least 20 agents who might be interested in your work and why. To find them, check the Acknowledgements page of similar books, where authors usually thank their reps.

You can also ask other writers, and seek out agents in the pages of writing- and publishing-industry magazines. Once you have your list of 20 or more, it’s time to go online and check out their websites. What type of material are they seeking? What titles have they handled in the past?

Use your list to write a query letter to each one, addressing the agent by name. “Dear Agent” simply will not do. As someone who once sat on that side of the desk, I found this kind of shortcut lazy and insulting.

If you’re writing a novel, your first paragraph to your potential agent should provide the title, word count and genre; tell who the main character is; what the character wants; and what/who is stopping your protagonist from getting it. It also should say why you think this particular agent would be a good match.

The second paragraph describes the main character’s journey, and tells how it ends.

Include a brief paragraph about you. If you have won writing awards or your work has appeared elsewhere, mention a few particulars. If your characters are ace tennis players, and you’ve won every regional tennis championship in your area for a number of years, say so. If you have an MFA, mention it. If this is your first book, but you’re a bonafide star in another arena—for example, you wrote the screenplay for Thelma & Louise—mention that, too. 

Now for the don’ts:  Don’t tell the agent how hard or long you labored on your manuscript. Don’t mention what you have in common with one of your fictional characters, e.g. you both dig strawberries. Don’t tell the agent how long you’ve been shopping your manuscript. Don’t grouse about who in the publishing industry has done you wrong. Don’t say that your book is going to sell a gazillion copies.  And whatever you do, don’t caution the agent that if she turns you down, she will regret it someday when your name is in lights. (Although success is the best revenge!)

Remember that the purpose of your query letter is to get an agent to ask for your whole manuscript. If you get a rejection, simply approach the next person on your list. Try not to take any negative comments personally. There is a literary agent out there who’s just waiting for you to come along, so keep submitting your work. 

Conversely, if you’ve sent your book out say, 10 times, and met with repeated rejection, you might consider other avenues to publishing—self, digital, on demand, etc., which puts the power in your hands.

Anita Diggs critiques manuscripts and writes book proposals. A former senior editor at Random House, she’s the author of A Mighty Love; A Meeting in the Ladies Room; and The Other Side of the GameShe has an extensive network of literary agents, and holds an MFA in Creative Writing from Hunter College. Email her at anita.diggs@gmail.com

Image courtesy the author; bekindrewrite.com


04/06/2015 - 4:55pm


Multiple Revenue Streams. You have to admit, it has a compelling ka-ching to it. If you’re thinking about opening your journalistic bag of tricks in a new arena, consider how former magazine editor Gay Edelman works as a writing coach.

NWU: How did you get your start?

Edelman: A friend, who was a therapist, asked me to work with a patient of hers who was writing a book, but had no idea how to convey her ideas.  From there I started two writing groups, which both ran for several years until I took an editorial staff job at McCalls. I entertained becoming a writing coach because so many people asked me for advice that I thought, I should charge for this! And so I started to. Since 1990, I’ve worked as a writing consultant with individuals, entrepreneurs, and nonprofits, helping them focus and hone their written materials. I’ve also conducted classes and workshops for established and aspiring writers.

NWU: How do you work with clients?

Edelman: We meet in person or on the phone. Some just need a few one-hour sessions. Others contract for more ongoing services. They may send small samples of what they’re working on for my review prior to our talking. We discuss their problems, whether it’s issues around content or their writing practice, and we set their goals together.

NWU: At what stage are their projects when they come to you?

Edelman: All stages. I’ve had people who’ve barely begun to write anything and need help creating a sustainable writing practice. And I’ve had accomplished writers who want to branch out into a new genre. Many are folks who are stuck and need to be told my signature phrase: “Just open a file. That’s all you have to do for now. Just open a file.” Little steps!

NWU: If someone is thinking of becoming a writing coach what would you advise?

Edelman: Think about what people ask you when they find out you’re a writer. Do you enjoy answering their questions? Do you like teaching people? Are you a good listener? Do you have experience or training with coaching? Are you fast on your feet, and flexible about people’s quirks and foibles? Can you always find something positive to say about someone’s writing, no matter what else you might think of it? Writers’ egos, I don’t have to tell you, are delicate. And are you prepared to do the legwork to build a practice? You’ll need to get out there and become known in various circles.

NWU: How do you determine how much to charge? And how do you set up payment arrangements?

Edelman: Coaching sessions are payable in advance by PayPal, unless other arrangements are made. $100 is in the ballpark of what writing coaches and one-on-one services providers tend to charge, as an hourly rate. If the client needs ongoing consistent support, it’s $250 a month, which is also in the ballpark of what coaches charge. If they buy three months in advance, you can give them a $50 break. As you come up with your rates, factor in what you need to live.

Gay Edelman worked for Family Circle, Ladies’ Home Journal and Good Housekeeping. She currently blogs for Thirdage.com and her own site, GayEdelman.com, and her book, The Hungry Ghost, is based on her 100-pound weight loss.

Caption: Gay Edelman and her projects.


04/06/2015 - 4:52pm


By Barbara Mende

When you need advice on a contract, or have a grievance against a publisher or client, you write to advice@nwu.org, right? Good. Keep it up. Also get in touch if you have a question that has to do with writing or with the NWU.

Want to check up on a potential agent or publisher, or see whether our database—or any public database—has a previous record of transactions? Do you have a quick question about writers’ rights vs. publishers’ rights, or about some aspect of copyright? Do you want to know about query letters or non-disclosure agreements or termination clauses? Are you curious about payment terms? Do you wonder why your royalty statement shows you’ve sold two books when Amazon says your book is a best seller? Do you know what to do when your publisher declares bankruptcy?

We can’t tackle all these questions ourselves, but often we can point you in the direction of the answer. We can’t refer you to an agent or publisher, but we can tell you where to look for agents and publishers, and how to check them out. We can’t answer legal questions or refer you to a specific lawyer, but we can advise you on how to handle your legal question. And if we don’t know about something, we can help you find someone who does. So if you have a question, get in touch. You may get the answer you’re looking for, and you can’t beat the price.

Barbara Mende is the coordinator of the Grievance and Contract Division.


04/06/2015 - 4:48pm
An Occasional Series on Travel and Writing

By Pamela K. Johnson

If you move to Los Angeles—or in my case back home to Los Angeles—do not be surprised if you find yourself writing a script. I had no inclination to go in that direction, but I do like money and recognition, and discovered that they can sometimes be found at the end of a screenwriting contest.

I once won a trip to New Mexico, where I got to shoot a short film. A spec script for the TV sit-com, The Office, won me $200 in a Scriptapalooza contest. So when I heard about the Beijing International Screenwriting Competition (for US writers), I entered in both the feature and short script categories. My feature treatment died a quiet death, but my short script, Morning Song, won me a grand prize that included $1,000, a trip to China, and the resources to make the film. The City of Beijing, which backed the contest, took about 15 people to China; financed several shorts; and awarded the feature grand prizewinner $15,000.

The idea for my short came from my first trip to China with a tour group in 2008. Our first day in that bustling city, I witnessed something that what would ultimately become the pulse point of Morning Song. Too early to check in when we arrived, we went to breakfast near a park, where I saw about 100 people under a tree singing at 7 a.m., complete with songbooks. Many retirees start their day singing, dancing, playing instruments or hacky sack, along with many other “morning exercises.”

Despite my initial lack of interest, screenwriting has proven to be a fun, unconventional way for me to tell a story. Late last year, when I decided to apply to graduate school in screenwriting, I had to come up with a 20-page sample. Though I didn’t get into the program, I kept writing and my script about African-Americans in Hollywood during World War II is nearly finished. In the coming weeks, I intend to submit it to the Nicholls Fellowship, Sundance, and Austin. And why not? The odds are long, but I’ve beaten them before.

Pamela K. Johnson is the NWUsletter editor.

Caption: Top left: Morning exercise with ribbons; filming on the streets of Beijing; clapboard. Bottom: storyboard; me surrounded by the singers in my film.


04/06/2015 - 4:45pm

By Larry Goldbetter

2015 UAW Special Bargaining Convention

I just returned from Detroit where the United Auto Workers held its Special Bargaining Convention to outline the framework for major negotiations at Ford, GM, Chrysler, John Deere, Mitsubishi and many others. The more than 2,000 delegates heard from Labor Secretary Thomas Perez and NAACP President Cornell William Brooks.

This is an especially challenging time for our union as more than 50 percent of the membership is in Right-to-Work states. Also, UAW’s sacrifices to bail out the auto industry have created a two-tier wage system. Many second-tier delegates were at the convention, and are ready to fight. With the auto companies making huge profits, the UAW is determined to close the wage gap. These coming months can be critical to the future of our union and all organized labor.

Delegate Assembly

The 2015 Delegate Assembly will be held August 7-9 in NYC. The midtown Manhattan offices of the NY-area UAW Region 9A have ample room to host the event, including breakout rooms where delegates can talk and caucus over meals.

This will be a very important DA for us, with new leadership emerging on all levels. At a time when the UAW and the whole labor movement face existential threats, it can serve as a call to action for us as working people, and provide a strategy to advance the struggle of freelance writers in our rapidly changing industry.


National, chapter, and delegate elections will be held soon. Look for a call for nominations in your inbox. Sarah Forth, the election committee chair, and I are working out the final logistics and hope to have this underway within days.

The New Website

We’re very close to finally launching our site. Content is being updated, and division and chapter chairs are being trained to post to their pages.

NYS Lobby and Legislative Conference

The UAW Region 9 and 9A NYS Lobby and Legislative Conference took place in Albany, March 8-11, where we had our biggest delegation in recent memory. Dave Hill, Marivir Montebon, Esther Cohen and I were among those attending. Unfortunately, we did not receive funds to support our 501(c)(3). The money would have gone to our WorkersWrite program, where low-wage workers and public housing tenants write their stories to advance the fight to raise the minimum wage. The funds would have also supported our mentoring program for young women of color who are interested in journalism careers, and our Spanish-language writers project. During our trip, we also lobbied on behalf of such NYS UAW issues as ending tax breaks for billionaire real estate developers, making adjunct professors eligible for unemployment compensation, and reforming campaign finance. I had a good meeting with Assemblywoman Michele Titus, the new chair of the Labor Committee.

(Top Photo) Top to bottom: The UAW SBC; workers let wishes be known; Randi Weingarten, American Federation of Teachers, NAACP President Cornell William Brooks. (Bottom) NWU President Larry Goldbetter with Assemblywoman Michelle Titus in Albany, NY, during a budget hearing.


03/19/2015 - 8:18pm

Finding Security in Unsafe Passages: United Nations Event about

Protecting Journalists’ Safety and Rights

Tickets: Free admission, RSVP required by Sunday, May 3.  Reserve your place here.

Gain an insider’s view of international efforts to promote freedom of the press and to end impunity for crimes against journalists. To mark World Press Freedom Day, this seminar will delve into the wide range of risks journalists face every day. Experts will offer safety tips, share advice for protecting sources and copyrights in all types of media, and address cybersecurity risks.

Presented by the International Federation of Journalists, the Communications Coordination Committee for the United Nations, the National Writers Union, and the Metro New York Labor Communications Council.


02/25/2015 - 10:00pm

By: Elizabeth A Richter

“The bottom line is that the subpoena…was a form of harassment, a brazen attempt to follow up a gag on mainstream media with threats against a citizen journalist.”

I am a working writer for the mysterious Catharine Sloper, an outspoken critic of the family court system and the proprietor of the blog Divorce in Connecticut (DiC). 

On January 2, 2015, I was on my way to New Haven, when I received a phone call that a Marshall wanted to serve me with a subpoena.  The subpoena was for a very public child custody case, Foy v. Foy. Connecticut Judge Stephen Frazzini had issued an order prohibiting the "Connecticut Law Tribune" from writing about the case and the "Tribune" responded by calling the order a first amendment violation and was supported by the Connecticut ACLU.

The DiC website had published a single article on the Foy divorce back in November 2014. That article is what stirred up all the controversy leading to my subpoena, even though my name is not on the article as the author.

In addition, the majority of the information in this article was available publically at the time it was written with content that was known to be part of the public domain. It made no sense to hold me or the website responsible for publishing news that was readily available elsewhere and that had already appeared on other websites. Judge Frazzini acknowledged this when he rescinded the restraining order against the "Connecticut Law Tribune" back on December 3, 2014.  The bottom line is that the subpoena I received was a form of harassment, a brazen attempt to follow up a gag on mainstream media with threats against a citizen journalist.

The day before the court hearing, my attorney told me that I would have to disclose my news sources or face jail.  She also said that they intended to force me to admit that I am Catharine Sloper and responsible for the content on the website.  I told her that readers and potential contributors to the blog rely on its anonymity, and that it would be unethical for me to reveal a source.  My attorney was able to engage the services of the attorney who was also representing the CT Law Tribune in their case.  Before I left her office, she advised me to bring my toothbrush to court the following day as I could end up in jail. 

I appeared in court with my toothbrush, toothpaste and other essentials. I also brought my National Writers Union membership card and press pass, identifying me as a member of the media. I passed them to my attorney, who immediately pulled out the Connecticut Statute on the media, which he had played a part in writing, and showed me how the press pass put me in a much stronger position.

My attorney submitted a motion to the court defending my rights, and gave the court the opportunity to scrutinize my NWU credentials.  At 2:00 p.m., the court said my presence was no longer required and I was free to go. The documentation I had from the NWU played a major role in keeping me out of jail.

What is really funny (or maybe not), is that my membership had actually expired.  You can be sure I’ve renewed it.




Union News

05/03/2011 - 4:50pm

02 May 2011

Shadow of 9/11 Attacks Hangs over Journalism, Says IFJ on World Press Freedom Day

The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) marks this year’s World Press Freedom Day by focusing on the legacy of the terrorist attacks on 11 September in New York and Washington ten years ago. The Federation plans to launch a major campaign - Journalism in the Shadow of Terror- to consider the impact of those terrible events and to call for a reversal of the tide of legal and official intimidation of journalism and attacks on civil liberties that has followed the events of 2001.

“The last ten years have seen an alarming erosion of press freedom as governments adopted a hard line in the fight against terror,” said Jim Boumelha, IFJ President. “There is no doubt that journalists have been among the prominent victims of a widespread assault on the democratic rights of all citizens and this has to change.”

The IFJ says that the laws introduced in the wake of the attacks of 11 September in America such as restrictions of movement and the right to investigate public authorities and to report and to publish freely have reduced the rights of journalists. The Federation is calling for a fresh debate on the new information landscape and how governments are responding to the challenge of groups such Wikileaks in exposing government secrets and the impact this has on journalism.

04/14/2011 - 4:00pm




NWU/UAW 1981 at the NYC May Day rally. The Union of Huffington Post Writers and Bloggers "call on journalists and bloggers to join the National Writers Union."



See http://www.facebook.com/l/60538/www.hpub.org for details."


04/12/2011 - 6:18pm

NEW YORK, NY: A class action lawsuit was filed today against The Huffington Post.com, Inc., Huffington Post owner Arianna Huffington, her co-owner, and AOL.com, Inc. alleging that thousands of writers and other content providers have been wrongly denied any compensation for the substantial value they created for the Huffington Post.  The Huffington Post was recently sold to AOL for $315 million.
“Arianna Huffington is pursuing the Wal-Martization of creative content and a Third World class of creative people,” said Jonathan Tasini, the lead plaintiff in the suit. “Actually, that is unfair to Wal-Mart because at least Wal-Mart pays its workers something for the value those workers create. In Arianna Huffington’s business model, economic gain is only reserved for her.  Everyone else, apparently, is expected to work for free regardless of the value they create. Greed and selfishness is the order of the day.”
The class action, filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on behalf of a putative class of over 9,000 writers and other content providers to The Huffington Post.com states deceptive trade practices and unjust enrichment as causes of action.  The complaint requests at least $105 million in damages on behalf of The Huffington Post’s uncompensated writers and other content providers.

THE FULL COMPLAINT CAN BE DOWNLOADED HERE: http://www.huffingtonpostlawsuit.com/uploads/Tasini_et_al._v._Huffington_et_al._Filed_Complaint_April_12_2011.pdf

03/30/2011 - 10:15am


Quick response to USLAW's alert by 452 people helped to free the four young journalists who had been detained by Iraqi security forces following a demonstration by workers demanding respect for labor rights, reliable electricity, clean water, sanitation and jobs for the unemployed.


03/23/2011 - 3:28pm

NEW YORK CITY:  March 23, 2011 –  "Judge Denny Chin's decision that the Google Book Settlement was 'not fair, adequate and reasonable' gives the National Writers Union even more reason to pursue other means through Congress and the courts to protect and affirm writers' rights against this sort of corporate infringement," declared Larry Goldbetter, president of the NWU, the union of freelance writers. "Because writers' copyright infringement claims against Google have yet to be resolved, the NWU calls on Google to stop scanning without permission -- now." 

Google digitized the contents of several university libraries started in 2004 without getting permission of any of the copyright holders of those books and journals.  The Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers sued, claiming infringement of copyright.  After a few years, the parties agreed to settle the law suit.  The proposed settlement and an amended settlement designed to meet objections to the first agreement not only tried to resolve rights arising from the illegal copyight.  The settlement also set up a new system to permit Google to sell the books it had digitized.  The National Writers Union and many foreign governments, individual writers, other writers groups and the U.S. Justice Department objected to the amended settlement.  Judge Chin rejected the settlement on March 23.

After seven years of Google digitizing books without the consent of the copyright holders, the only point that is clear is that the efforts of three parties – Google, the Authors Guild (AG) and the Association of American Publishers (AAP) – to resolve the many issues involved were totally unsuccessful and left most matters yet to be decided, added Goldbetter.   NWU hopes that any future settlement talks will include other writers' groups like the NWU in addition to the Authors Guild, which, according to the judge, may have “antagonistic interests” with at least certain other writers.  (Authors Guild v. Google, Inc., 05 CIV 8136 (DC 2011), p. 20.  "NWU looks forward to hearing from Google, AAP and AG about how they plan to broaden the negotiations to include all those who offered substantive objections to the settlement," stated Goldbetter. 

03/22/2011 - 8:25pm

New York March 22 - NWU applauds Judge Chin's decision today rejecting the Google Book Settlement as not "fair, adequate, and reasonable." Along with our co-objectors, we will continue to pursue justice for authors and the establishment of a digital Library of Congress, not Google.

See the decision here: http://thepublicindex.org/docs/amended_settlement/opinion.pdf

See some initial news coverage on the decision here:




03/22/2011 - 10:35am
Right now 50 bloggers at ArtScene and the newly formed Huffington Post Union of Bloggers and Writers (HPUB) are striking the Huffington Post for unpaid wages. The Natioinal Writers Union and others are honoring what the Newspaper Guild called, their "electronic picket lines." We urge our members and everyone reading this, not to write for HuffPo until they brought to the bargaining table.
We can think of no better way to launch our campaign to establish a living minimum wage for on line content writers. From HuffPo, which was bought by AOL for $315 million to Demand Media, with a December IPO that valued it at $1.5 billion, huge profits are being reaped off the unpaid or penny-a-word labor of freelance writers. This can not go on.

The following article by NWU member John Sandman is the first of a series to further the discussion, struggle and buzz among freelance writers and bloggers, to gather the forces needed to make this fight. We look forward to hearing from you and to your participation in this campaign.

03/14/2011 - 3:37pm

News about union support for single-payer health care and HR 676 <singlepayernews@unionsforsinglepayerhealthcare.org>

Conyers Reintroduces HR 676 into the 112th Congress

On February 11, 2011, Congressman John Conyers, Jr., Democrat of Michigan, reintroduced Expanded and Improved Medicare for All, HR 676, the national single payer health care legislation, into the 112th Congress.  With minor changes, such as the addition of oral surgery to the benefits, HR 676 is the same and will provide all medically necessary care to everyone through progressive public funding and elimination of private health insurance companies.  There are no premiums, no co-pays, no co-insurance, no deductibles.

Congressman Conyers stated:  “Millions of Americans are frustrated with rising health care costs, and have a deep mistrust of private health insurance companies. The for-profit medicine model has resulted in rationed care and created undue stress and financial hardships for millions of Americans across the nation.